Cocoa in Europe long remained a ‘Catholic’ drink prepared exclusively by Spanish monks in their cloisters. It met few adversaries, all of whom are found in the country’s clerical circles. The main controversy over the use of chocolate in sixteenth-century Spain was whether it should be seen as a food or a liquid, with consequences for its use in periods of fasting in either case. Cocoa’s alleged passion-raising properties also seem to have been a topic of discussion.
In contrast to cocoa, tea in time became quintessentially a ‘Calvinist’ drink. Catholics and, to a lesser extent, Lutherans rarely treated alcohol as a major problem. Calvinism and Puritanism, on the other hand, tended to condemn alcohol as satanic and eagerly welcomed tea as an emblem of sobriety and moral restraint, almost as a divine alternative. England is a good example. There the incapacity of tea to intoxicate helped spur its acceptance in religious circles followed by social reformers concerned about the working classes. Even the Dutch physicians who described its effects in the bio-functional terms of their school — alcohol makes ill, tea heals — converged with more traditional religious views in crediting tea with increased vigilance and piousness.
"But there are plenty of people who will expect me to fail. And there are even more trying to take advantage of my youth and inexperience."
"Then they don’t know you like I do."
Do you not see how necessary a world of pains and troubles is to school an intelligence and make it a soul?
Nøkken Som Hvit Hest (The Nix As a Brook Horse) by Theodor Kittelsen (1909).
The Scandinavian näck, näkki, nøkk, nøkken, strömkarl, Grim or Fosse-Grim were male water spirits who played enchanted songs on the violin, luring women and children to drown in lakes or streams.
It is difficult to describe the actual appearance of the nix, as one of his central attributes was thought to be shapeshifting. Perhaps he did not have any true shape. He could show himself as a man playing the violin in brooks and waterfalls (though often imagined as fair and naked today, in actual folklore he was more frequently wearing more or less elegant clothing) but also could appear to be treasure or various floating objects or as an animal—most commonly in the form of a “brook horse”. The modern Scandinavian names are derived from an Old Norse nykr, meaning “river horse.”